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      ul></div><div class="yearDivider" id="yearDivider_2022">2022</div> <div clas
      s="record"> <div class="citation"> <div class="authors">Cocina,&nbsp;A.&n
      bsp;; Brechbühler,&nbsp;R.&nbsp;; Vonk,&nbsp;S.J.W.&nbsp;; <strong>Cui,&nbs
      p;J.</strong>&nbsp;; Rossinelli,&nbsp;A.A.&nbsp;; Rojo,&nbsp;H.&nbsp;; Rabou
      w,&nbsp;F.T.&nbsp;; Norris,&nbsp;D.J.</div> <div class="linked_title"><a t
      arget="_blank" href="https://push-zb.helmholtz-munich.de/frontdoor.php?sourc
      e_opus=65025&la=de">Nanophotonic approach to study excited-state dynamics in
       semiconductor nanocrystals.</a></div> <div class="source">J. Phys. Chem.
      Lett. 13, 4145-4151 (2022)</div> <div class="abstract">In semiconductor na
      nocrystals, excited electrons relax through multiple radiative and nonradiat
      ive pathways. This complexity complicates characterization of their decay pr
      ocesses with standard time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence stud
      ies. Here, we exploit a simple nanophotonic approach to augment such measure
      ments and to address open questions related to nanocrystal emission. We plac
      e nanocrystals at differ...
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All publications - Pioneer Campus
Cocina, A. ; Brechbühler, R. ; Vonk, S.J.W. ; Cui, J. ; Rossinelli, A.A. ; Rojo, H. ; Rabouw, F.T. ; Norris, D.J.
J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 13, 4145-4151 (2022)
In semiconductor nanocrystals, excited electrons relax through multiple radiative and nonradiative pathways. This complexity complicates characterization of their decay processes with standard time- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies. Here, we exploit a simple nanophotonic approach to augment such measurements and to address open questions related to nanocrystal emission. We place nanocrystals at different distances from a gold reflector to affect radiative rates through variations in the local density of optical states. We apply this approach to spherical CdSe-based nanocrystals to probe the radiative efficiency and polarization properties of the lowest dark and bright excitons by analyzing temperature-dependent emission dynamics. For CdSe-based nanoplatelets, we identify the charge-carrier trapping mechanism responsible for strongly delayed emission. Our method, when combined with careful modeling of the influence of the nanophotonic environment on the relaxation dynamics, offers a versatile strategy to disentangle the complex excited-state decay pathways present in fluorescent nanocrystals as well as other emitters.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Aellen, M. ; Rossinelli, A.A. ; Keitel, R.C. ; Brechbühler, R. ; Antolinez, F.V. ; Rodrigo, S.G. ; Cui, J. ; Norris, D.J.
ACS Photonics 9, 630-640 (2022)
Plasmonic lasers generate strongly confined electromagnetic fields over a narrow range of wavelengths. This is potentially useful for enhancing nonlinear effects, sensing chemical species, and providing on-chip sources of plasmons. By placing a semiconductor gain layer near a metallic interface with a gap layer in between, plasmonic lasers have been demonstrated. However, the role of gain in this common design has been understudied, leading to suboptimal choices. Here, we examine planar metallic lasers and explore the effect of gain on the lasing behavior. We print semiconductor nanoplatelets as a gain layer of controllable thickness onto alumina-coated silver films with integrated planar Fabry-Pérot cavities. Lasing behavior is then monitored with spectrally and polarization-resolved far-field imaging. The results are compared with a theoretical waveguide model and a rate-equation model, which consider both plasmonic and photonic modes and explicitly include losses and gain. We find that the nature of the lasing mode is dictated by the gain-layer thickness and, contrary to conventional wisdom, a gap layer with a high refractive index can be advantageous for plasmonic lasing in planar Fabry-Pérot cavities. Our rate-equation model also reveals a regime where plasmonic and photonic modes compete in an unintuitive way, potentially useful for facile, active mode switching. These results can guide future design of metallic lasers and could lead to on-chip lasers with controlled photonic and plasmonic output.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Keitel, R.C. ; Aellen, M. ; Feber, B.L. ; Rossinelli, A.A. ; Meyer, S.A. ; Cui, J. ; Norris, D.J.
Nano Lett. 21, 8952–8959 (2021)
The pursuit of miniaturized optical sources for on-chip applications has led to the development of surface plasmon polariton lasers (plasmonic lasers). While applications in spectroscopy and information technology would greatly benefit from the facile and active tuning of the output wavelength from such devices, this topic remains underexplored. Here, we demonstrate optically controlled switching between predefined wavelengths within a plasmonic microlaser. After fabricating Fabry-Pérot plasmonic cavities that consist of two curved block reflectors on an ultrasmooth flat Ag surface, we deposit a thin film of CdSe/CdxZn1-xS/ZnS colloidal core/shell/shell nanoplatelets (NPLs) as the gain medium. Our cavity geometry allows the spatial and energetic separation of transverse modes. By spatially modulating the gain profile within this device, we demonstrate active selection and switching between four transverse modes within a single plasmonic laser. The fast buildup and decay of the plasmonic modes promises picosecond switching times, given sufficiently rapid changes in the structured illumination.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Antolinez, F.V. ; Winkler, J.M. ; Rohner, P. ; Kress, S.J.P. ; Keitel, R.C. ; Kim, D.K. ; Marques-Gallego, P. ; Cui, J. ; Rabouw, F.T. ; Poulikakos, D. ; Norris, D.J.
ACS Nano 13, 9048-9056 (2019)
Energy transfer allows energy to be moved from one quantum emitter to another. If this process follows the Forster mechanism, efficient transfer requires the emitters to be extremely close (<10 nm). To increase the transfer range, nanophotonic structures have been explored for photon- or plasmon-mediated energy transfer. Here, we fabricate high-quality silver plasmonic resonators to examine long-distance plasmon-mediated energy transfer. Specifically, we design elliptical resonators that allow energy transfer between the foci, which are separated by up to 10 mu m. The geometry of the ellipse guarantees that all plasmons emitted from one focus are collected and channeled through different paths to the other focus. Thus, energy can be transferred even if a micrometer-sized defect obstructs the direct path between the focal points. We characterize the spectral and spatial profiles of the resonator modes and show that these can be used to transfer energy between green- and red-emitting colloidal quantum dots printed with subwavelength accuracy using electrohydrodynamic nanodripping. Rate-equation modeling of the time-resolved fluorescence from the quantum dots further confirms the long-distance energy transfer.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Kress, S.J.P. ; Cui, J. ; Rohner, P. ; Kim, D.K. ; Antolinez, F.V. ; Zaininger, K.A. ; Jayanti, S.V. ; Richner, P. ; McPeak, K.M. ; Poulikakos, D. ; Norris, D.J.
Sci. Adv. 3:e1700688 (2017)
Colloidal quantum dots are robust, efficient, and tunable emitters now used in lighting, displays, and lasers. Consequently, when the spaser-a laser-like source of high-intensity, narrow-band surface plasmons-was first proposed, quantum dots were specified as the ideal plasmonic gain medium for overcoming the significant intrinsic losses of plasmons. Many subsequent spasers, however, have required a single material to simultaneously provide gain and define the plasmonic cavity, a design unable to accommodate quantum dots and other colloidal nanomaterials. In addition, these and other designs have been ill suited for integration with other elements in a larger plasmonic circuit, limiting their use. We develop a more open architecture that decouples the gain medium from the cavity, leading to a versatile class of quantum dot-based spasers that allow controlled generation, extraction, and manipulation of plasmons. We first create aberration-corrected plasmonic cavities with high quality factors at desired locations on an ultrasmooth silver substrate. We then incorporate quantum dots into these cavities via electrohydrodynamic printing or drop-casting. Photoexcitation under ambient conditions generates monochromatic plasmons (0.65-nm linewidth at 630 nm, ~ 1000) above threshold. This signal is extracted, directed through an integrated amplifier, and focused at a nearby nanoscale tip, generating intense electromagnetic fields. More generally, our device platform can be straightforwardly deployed at different wavelengths, size scales, and geometries on large-area plasmonic chips for fundamental studies and applications.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Prins, F. ; Kim, D.K. ; Cui, J. ; De Leo, E. ; Spiegel, L.L. ; McPeak, K.M. ; Norris, D.J.
Nano Lett. 17, 1319-1325 (2017)
We report on a template-stripping method for the direct surface patterning of colloidal quantum-dot thin films to produce highly luminescent structures with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Through the careful design of high quality bull's-eye gratings we can produce strong directional beaming (10° divergence) with up to 6-fold out-coupling enhancement of spontaneous emission in the surface-normal direction. A transition to narrow single-mode lasing is observed in these same structures at thresholds as low as 120 μJ/cm. In addition, we demonstrate that these structures can be fabricated on flexible substrates. Finally, making use of the size-tunable character of colloidal quantum dots, we demonstrate spectrally selective out-coupling of light from mixed quantum-dot films. Our results provide a straightforward route toward significantly improved optical properties of colloidal quantum-dot assemblies.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Cui, J. ; Beyler, A.P. ; Coropceanu, I. ; Cleary, L. ; Avila, T.R. ; Chen, Y. ; Cordero, J.M. ; Heathcote, S.L. ; Harris, D.K. ; Chen, O. ; Cao, J. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Nano Lett. 16, 289-296 (2016)
The optimization of photoluminescence spectral linewidths in semiconductor nanocrystal preparations involves minimizing both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the ensemble spectrum. Although the inhomogeneous contribution can be controlled by eliminating interparticle inhomogeneities, far less is known about how to synthetically control the homogeneous, or single-nanocrystal, spectral linewidth. Here, we use solution photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy (S-PCFS) to measure how the sample-averaged single-nanocrystal emission linewidth of CdSe core and core/shell nanocrystals change with systematic changes in the size of the cores and the thickness and composition of the shells. We find that the single-nanocrystal linewidth at room temperature is heavily influenced by the nature of the CdSe surface and the epitaxial shell, which have a profound impact on the internal electric fields that affect exciton-phonon coupling. Our results explain the wide variations, both experimental and theoretical, in the magnitude and size dependence in previous reports on exciton-phonon coupling in CdSe nanocrystals. Moreover, our findings offer a general pathway for achieving the narrow spectral linewidths required for many applications of nanocrystals.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Han, H.S. ; Niemeyer, E. ; Huang, Y. ; Kamoun, W.S. ; Martin, J.D. ; Bhaumik, J. ; Chen, Y. ; Roberge, S. ; Cui, J. ; Martin, M.R. ; Fukumura, D. ; Jain, R.K. ; Bawendi, M.G. ; Duda, D.G.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112, 1350-1355 (2015)
Multiplexed, phenotypic, intravital cytometric imaging requires novel fluorophore conjugates that have an appropriate size for long circulation and diffusion and show virtually no nonspecific binding to cells/serum while binding to cells of interest with high specificity. In addition, these conjugates must be stable and maintain a high quantum yield in the in vivo environments. Here, we show that this can be achieved using compact (∼15 nm in hydrodynamic diameter) and biocompatible quantum dot (QD) -Ab conjugates. We developed these conjugates by coupling whole mAbs to QDs coated with norbornene-displaying polyimidazole ligands using tetrazine-norbornene cycloaddition. Our QD immunoconstructs were used for in vivo single-cell labeling in bone marrow. The intravital imaging studies using a chronic calvarial bone window showed that our QD-Ab conjugates diffuse into the entire bone marrow and efficiently label single cells belonging to rare populations of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (Sca1(+)c-Kit(+) cells). This in vivo cytometric technique may be useful in a wide range of structural and functional imaging to study the interactions between cells and between a cell and its environment in intact and diseased tissues.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Beyler, A.P. ; Bischof, T.S. ; Cui, J. ; Coropceanu, I. ; Harris, D.K. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Nano Lett. 14, 6792-6798 (2014)
The brightness of nanoscale optical materials such as semiconductor nanocrystals is currently limited in high excitation flux applications by inefficient multiexciton fluorescence. We have devised a solution-phase photon correlation measurement that can conveniently and reliably measure the average biexciton-to-exciton quantum yield ratio of an entire sample without user selection bias. This technique can be used to investigate the multiexciton recombination dynamics of a broad scope of synthetically underdeveloped materials, including those with low exciton quantum yields and poor fluorescence stability. Here, we have applied this method to measure weak biexciton fluorescence in samples of visible-emitting InP/ZnS and InAs/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, and to demonstrate that a rapid CdS shell growth procedure can markedly increase the biexciton fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Cui, J.
, Diss., 2014, 137-152
The photoluminescence spectrum of an ensemble of emitters is the result of the homogeneous "natural" spectra of single emitters subjected to interparticle inhomogeneities and perturbations from the environment. For semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), efforts to tune ensemble linewidths for optical applications have focused primarily on eliminating sample inhomogeneities because conventional single-molecule methods cannot reliably build accurate ensemble-level statistics for single-particle linewidths. Photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy in solution (S-PCFS) offers a unique approach for investigating single-nanocrystal spectra with large sample statistics, without user selection bias, with high signal-to-noise ratios, and at fast timescales. With S-PCFS, we directly and quantitatively deconstruct the ensemble spectra of nanocrystals into contributions from the average single-NC homogeneous linewidth, spectral dynamics, and sample inhomogeneity. First, we discovered that single NCs at room temperature, in contrast to cryogenic temperatures, do not exhibit spectral dynamics on sub-millisecond timescales. Second, the linewidths of these homogeneous spectra were found to vary significantly from batch to batch and subject to synthetic control. Our findings crystallize our understanding of the synthetic challenges facing underdeveloped nanomaterials such as InP and InAs nanocrystals and introduce new avenues for the synthetic optimization of fluorescent nanoparticles. Finally, we have made strides toward understanding the underlying physical processes responsible for the homogeneous spectra of single nanocrystals at room temperature. Through careful synthetic control over the nanocrystal structure and composition, we have been able to understand changes in the homogeneous spectral linewidth in terms of exciton-phonon coupling. Combined with a simple spectral lineshape model, we have worked towards quantitatively understanding exciton-phonon coupling with respect to specific nanocrystal structural and composition parameters.
Cui, J. ; Beyler, A.P. ; Bischof, T.S. ; Wilson, M.W.B. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Chem. Soc. Rev. 43, 1287-310 (2014)
Prior to the advent of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, many of the fundamental optical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots were obscured by ensemble averaging over their inherent inhomogeneities. Single quantum dot spectroscopy has become a leading technique for the unambiguous determination of the governing excitonic physics of these quantum-confined systems. The analysis and interpretation of the timing and energies of photons emitted from individual nanocrystals have uncovered unexpected and fundamental electronic processes at the nanoscale. We review several different paradigms for deconstructing the photon stream from single nanocrystals, ranging from intensity "binning" techniques to more sophisticated methods based on single-photon counting. In particular, we highlight photon correlation - a powerful developing paradigm in single-nanocrystal studies. The application of photon-correlation techniques to single nanocrystals is changing the study of multiexcitonic recombination dynamics, uncovering the basic processes governing spectral linewidths and spectral diffusion, and enabling the extraction of single-nanocrystal properties directly from an ensemble with high statistical significance. These single-molecule techniques have proven invaluable for understanding the physics of nanocrystals and can provide unique insight into other heterogeneous and dynamical systems.
Chen, O. ; Riedemann, L. ; Etoc, F. ; Herrmann, H. ; Coppey, M. ; Barch, M. ; Farrar, C.T. ; Zhao, J. ; Bruns, O.T. ; Wei, H. ; Guo, P. ; Cui, J. ; Jensen, R. ; Chen, Y. ; Harris, D.K. ; Cordero, J.M. ; Wang, Z. ; Jasanoff, A. ; Fukumura, D. ; Reimer, R. ; Dahan, M. ; Jain, R.K. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Nat. Commun. 5:5093 (2014)
Magneto-fluorescent particles have been recognized as an emerging class of materials that exhibit great potential in advanced applications. However, synthesizing such magneto-fluorescent nanomaterials that simultaneously exhibit uniform and tunable sizes, high magnetic content loading, maximized fluorophore coverage at the surface and a versatile surface functionality has proven challenging. Here we report a simple approach for co-assembling magnetic nanoparticles with fluorescent quantum dots to form colloidal magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles. Importantly, these supernanoparticles exhibit a superstructure consisting of a close-packed magnetic nanoparticle 'core', which is fully surrounded by a 'shell' of fluorescent quantum dots. A thin layer of silica coating provides high colloidal stability and biocompatibility, and a versatile surface functionality. We demonstrate that after surface pegylation, these silica-coated magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles can be magnetically manipulated inside living cells while being optically tracked. Moreover, our silica-coated magneto-fluorescent supernanoparticles can also serve as an in vivo multi-photon and magnetic resonance dual-modal imaging probe.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Beyler, A.P. ; Marshall, L.F. ; Cui, J. ; Brokmann, X. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 111:177401 (2013)
We measure the anomalous spectral diffusion of single colloidal quantum dots over eight temporal decades simultaneously by combining single-molecule spectroscopy and photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy. Our technique distinguishes between discrete and continuous dynamics and directly reveals that the quasicontinuous spectral diffusion observed using conventional spectroscopy is composed of rapid, discrete spectral jumps. Despite their multiple time scales, these dynamics can be captured by a single mechanism whose parameters vary widely between dots and over time in individual dots.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Cui, J. ; Beyler, A.P. ; Marshall, L.F. ; Chen, O. ; Harris, D.K. ; Wanger, D.D. ; Brokmann, X. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Nat. Chem. 5, 602-606 (2013)
The spectral linewidth of an ensemble of fluorescent emitters is dictated by the combination of single-emitter linewidths and sample inhomogeneity. For semiconductor nanocrystals, efforts to tune ensemble linewidths for optical applications have focused primarily on eliminating sample inhomogeneities, because conventional single-molecule methods cannot reliably build accurate ensemble-level statistics for single-particle linewidths. Photon-correlation Fourier spectroscopy in solution (S-PCFS) offers a unique approach to investigating single-nanocrystal spectra with large sample statistics and high signal-to-noise ratios, without user selection bias and at fast timescales. With S-PCFS, we directly and quantitatively deconstruct the ensemble linewidth into contributions from the average single-particle linewidth and from sample inhomogeneity. We demonstrate that single-particle linewidths vary significantly from batch to batch and can be synthetically controlled. These findings delineate the synthetic challenges facing underdeveloped nanomaterials such as InP and InAs core-shell particles and introduce new avenues for the synthetic optimization of fluorescent nanoparticles.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Chen, O. ; Zhao, J. ; Chauhan, V.P. ; Cui, J. ; Wong, C. ; Harris, D.K. ; Wei, H. ; Han, H.S. ; Fukumura, D. ; Jain, R.K. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Nat. Mater. 12, 445-451 (2013)
High particle uniformity, high photoluminescence quantum yields, narrow and symmetric emission spectral lineshapes and minimal single-dot emission intermittency (known as blinking) have been recognized as universal requirements for the successful use of colloidal quantum dots in nearly all optical applications. However, synthesizing samples that simultaneously meet all these four criteria has proven challenging. Here, we report the synthesis of such high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell quantum dots in an optimized process that maintains a slow growth rate of the shell through the use of octanethiol and cadmium oleate as precursors. In contrast with previous observations, single-dot blinking is significantly suppressed with only a relatively thin shell. Furthermore, we demonstrate the elimination of the ensemble luminescence photodarkening that is an intrinsic consequence of quantum dot blinking statistical ageing. Furthermore, the small size and high photoluminescence quantum yields of these novel quantum dots render them superior in vivo imaging agents compared with conventional quantum dots. We anticipate these quantum dots will also result in significant improvement in the performance of quantum dots in other applications such as solid-state lighting and illumination.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Cui, J. ; Marshall, L.F. ; Han, H.S. ; Wanger, D.D. ; Brokmann, X. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 243, 452-PHYS (2012)
Meeting abstract
Meeting abstract
Chauhan, V.P. ; Popović, Z. ; Chen, O. ; Cui, J. ; Fukumura, D. ; Bawendi, M.G. ; Jain, R.K.
Angew. Chem.-Int. Edit. 50, 11417-11420 (2011)
Letter to the Editor
Letter to the Editor
Wong, C. ; Stylianopoulos, T. ; Cui, J. ; Martin, J. ; Chauhan, V.P. ; Jiang, W. ; Popović, Z. ; Jain, R.K. ; Bawendi, M.G. ; Fukumura, D.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 2426-2431 (2011)
Current Food and Drug Administration-approved cancer nanotherapeutics, which passively accumulate around leaky regions of the tumor vasculature because of an enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, have provided only modest survival benefits. This suboptimal outcome is likely due to physiological barriers that hinder delivery of the nanotherapeutics throughout the tumor. Many of these nanotherapeutics are ≈ 100 nm in diameter and exhibit enhanced accumulation around the leaky regions of the tumor vasculature, but their large size hinders penetration into the dense collagen matrix. Therefore, we propose a multistage system in which 100-nm nanoparticles "shrink" to 10-nm nanoparticles after they extravasate from leaky regions of the tumor vasculature and are exposed to the tumor microenvironment. The shrunken nanoparticles can more readily diffuse throughout the tumor's interstitial space. This size change is triggered by proteases that are highly expressed in the tumor microenvironment such as MMP-2, which degrade the cores of 100-nm gelatin nanoparticles, releasing smaller 10-nm nanoparticles from their surface. We used quantum dots (QD) as a model system for the 10-nm particles because their fluorescence can be used to demonstrate the validity of our approach. In vitro MMP-2 activation of the multistage nanoparticles revealed that the size change was efficient and effective in the enhancement of diffusive transport. In vivo circulation half-life and intratumoral diffusion measurements indicate that our multistage nanoparticles exhibited both the long circulation half-life necessary for the EPR effect and the deep tumor penetration required for delivery into the tumor's dense collagen matrix.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Marshall, L.F. ; Cui, J. ; Brokmann, X. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 240, 528-PHYS (2010)
Meeting abstract
Meeting abstract
Marshall, L.F. ; Cui, J. ; Brokmann, X. ; Bawendi, M.G.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 105:053005 (2010)
Fluorescence spectroscopy of single chromophores immobilized on a substrate has provided much fundamental insight, yet the spectral line shapes and dynamics of single chromophores freely diffusing in solution have remained difficult or impossible to measure with conventional linear spectroscopies. Here, we demonstrate an interferometric technique for extracting time dependent single chromophore spectral correlations from intensity correlations in the interference pattern of an ensemble fluorescence spectrum. We apply our technique to solutions of colloidal quantum dots and explore the spectrum of single particles on short time scales not feasible with conventional fluorescence measurements.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Paul, I. ; Cui, J. ; Maynard, E.L.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 18475-18480 (2006)
Virion infectivity factor (Vif) is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 and is critical for viral infection of the host CD4(+) T cell population. Vif induces ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Apo3G, a cytosolic cytidine deaminase that otherwise targets the retroviral genome. Interaction of Vif with the cellular Cullin5-based E3 ubiquitin ligase requires a conserved BC box and upstream residues that are part of the conserved H-(Xaa)(5)-C-(Xaa)(17-18)-C-(Xaa)(3-5)-H (HCCH) motif. The HCCH motif is involved in stabilizing the Vif-Cullin 5 interaction, but the exact role of the conserved His and Cys residues remains elusive. In this report, we find that full-length HIV-1 Vif, as well as a HCCH peptide, is capable of binding to zinc with high specificity. Zinc binding induces a conformational change that leads to the formation of large protein aggregates. EDTA reversed aggregation and regenerated the apoprotein conformation. Cysteine modification studies with the HCCH peptide suggest that C114 is critical for stabilizing the fold of the apopeptide, and that C133 is located in a solvent-exposed region with no definite secondary structure. Selective alkylation of C133 reduced metal-binding specificity of the HCCH peptide, allowing cobalt to bind with rates comparable to that with zinc. This study demonstrates that the HCCH motif of HIV-1 Vif is a unique metal-binding domain capable of mediating protein-protein interactions in the presence of zinc and adds to a growing list of examples in which metal ion binding induces protein misfolding and/or aggregation.
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Scientific Article
Kim, S.Y. ; Cui, J. ; Lu, Z.K. ; Semyonov, A.N. ; Twieg, R.W. ; Moerner, W.E.
Abstr. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 232, 484-PHYS (2006)
Meeting abstract
Meeting abstract